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Moscow, Russia
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Moscow, Russia - Capital City
Moscow History


Tourist Attractions

Moscow Weather
Int'l Dialing Codes for Moscow

Moscow Metro

Moscow, Russia - Capital City

The most populous city in Europe, Moscow has population of 10.4 million, which is about 7% of the total Russian population. Moscow's architecture and performing arts culture are world-renowned. Moscow is also well known as the site of Saint Basil's Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church. Moscow also remains a major economic centre and is home to a large number of billionaires; it is perennially considered one of the most expensive cities for expatriate

Moscow is set up in a circle with the Red Square in the center of the city. They have colored the different metro train lines so you can quickly see by the color when to get off or on to meet up with other crossing train routs. Know were you need to get by the train color and the the exit name. It possesses a complex transport system that includes the world's busiest metro system, which is famous for its architecture.

So if you are coming from the Sherenetyevo Airport the first metro at north dark green
(Solntsevskava) metro line at the Rechnov Vokzal station. and if you are going to Kursk, Russia by Train you will need the Kurskaya metro station located on the main dark red circle line (Koltsevava) and the dark blue line (Arbatsko-Pokrouskava)

Moscow is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. The urban area constitutes about 1/10 of the Russian population, thus making it the most populous city in Europe.

The capital and largest city of Russia, in the west-central part of the country on the Moscow River, flowing about 499 km (310 mi) eastward to the Oka River. First mentioned in 1147, Moscow became the capital of the principality of Muscovy and by the 15th century was the capital of the Russian state and the seat of the metropolitan (later patriarch) of the Russian Orthodox Church. The capital was transferred to St. Petersburg in 1712 but was returned to Moscow by the Soviets in 1918. Population: 10,300,000 .Moscow is also well known as the site of the Saint Basil's Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church.

It is a city in which one comes face to face with all that is finest and all that is most frustrating in Russia. The gregarious geniality of its people is as evident as the extreme tensions of a city coming to terms with the confusions of rapid social change. More than anywhere else in the country, it is in Moscow where the Soviet past collides with the capitalist future. Lenin's Mausoleum remains intact, but today it faces the newly chic GUM (pronounced goom), which is becoming ever more akin to Macy's or Harrod's.

Yet, as the new Moscow emerges, it is becoming increasingly clear that any move into the future will be marked by a strong appreciation of the city's rich and varied heritage--a heritage that vastly predates the era of Soviet rule. Indeed, the most striking aspect of the city today is not Moscow's much-publicized embrace of Western culture but its self-assured revival of its own traditions. Ancient cathedrals are being restored and opened for religious services, innovative theaters are reclaiming leadership in the arts, and traditional markets are coming back to life. Moscow is once more assuming its position as the capital and mother city of the ancient state of Russia.

Moscow History: First tribes appeared on the territory of the future Moscow in the neolitic epoch. The oldest settlements, dated as three thousands years before our era, were discovered within the area of the present-day city. In the second half of the first millennia of our era slavic tribes occupied areas near Moscow, these were "vjatichi", who are regarded as a kernel of the future Moscow population.

The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when it was an obscure town in a small province, with a mostly Finno-Ugric population, the Merya. In 1156, Prince Yury Dolgoruky built a wooden wall and a moat around the city. After the sacking of 1237-1238, when the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of an independent principality.

in 1300 Moscow was ruled by Daniil Aleksandrovich, the son of Alexander Nevsky and a member of the Rurik Dynasty. Its favorable position on the headwaters of the Volga river contributed to steady expansion. Moscow was also stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large numbers of refugees from across Russia. By 1304 Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the capitol of Vladimir, and the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons, but was passed intact to his eldest.

While Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. After that Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III has finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control (see Great standing on the Ugra river) and Moscow became the capital of an empire which would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands.

The tyranny of later Czars, such as Ivan the Terrible, led to a decay of the state, even as the empire was expanding. In 1571 the Tatars from the Crimean Khanate seized and burned Moscow. From 1610 through 1612 troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to usurp the Russian throne. In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities rose against the Polish occupants, sieged the Kremlin and killed them. In 1613, an assembly of the Empire elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty.

Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital when in 1703 Peter the Great constructed St. Petersburg on the Baltic coast. When Napoleon invaded in 1812, the Muscovites evacuated and burned the city on September 14, as Napoleon's forces were approaching. Napoleon's army, plagued by hunger, cold, and poor supply lines, retreated.

In January of 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Aleksandr Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor (current mayor is Yuri Luzhkov). Following the success of the Russian revolution in 1917, Lenin, fearing possible foreign invasion, moved capital from St. Petersburg back to Moscow on March 5, 1918.

As a vital junction of USSR railroads and supply lines, Moscow, along with Leningrad and Kiev, was designated one of the three strategic targets of German offensive in 1941. In November 1941, German Army Group Center was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of Battle of Moscow.

Education: There are numerous large universities in Moscow, including the renowned Moscow State University housed in the 240m high tower on Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hills). The university has over 30,000 undergraduates and 7,000 postgraduate students. Bauman Moscow State Technical University offers a wide range of technical degrees. Moscow State Institute of International Relations [1] is Russia's best known school of international relations and diplomacy

Culture: Moscow is the heart of the Russian ballet and the performing arts. Many live in country homes (called dachas) over the weekend and over holidays. The dacha also serves as the retirement home of the elderly. Many parks and gardens are present in Moscow.

Costs: Some prices are considerably higher for the foreign visitor than for locals. A cost of living survey by Mercer Human Resource Consulting puts Moscow in second place after Tokyo, making it the most expensive city in Europe.

Transport: Moscow has four airports, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Domodedovo International Airport, Bykovo Airport, and Vnukovo International Airport. Local transportation includes the Moscow Metro, an excellent metro (subway) system, filled with art, murals, and mosaics. Begun in 1935, it has 11 lines and more than 170 stations. The world's busiest, with 9 million passengers every day and trains every 90 seconds.

Dining: In recent times there has been a large and quickly growing range of restaurants with a range of prices to match. The average cost, per person, for a meal in a middle to high class restaurant will be $30 to $200. A quick "canteen" style meal in a "Stolovaya" may cost about three dollars to five dollars. Recently, a large number of the coffee shops sprouted around the city.

Moscow Tourist Attractions: Metro Stations; The Arbat Street; Bolshoi Theatre; Kolomenskoye; Kremlin; Kuskovo; Manege; Ostankino Tower; Stalinist skyscrapers; The Tretyakov Gallery; Ostankino Palace; Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts; Red Square; Lenin's mausoleum; Saint Basil's Cathedral; Novodevichy Convent; Novospassky Monastery; Shukhov Radio Tower; Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Moscow); Cathedral of the Assumption; Church of Kosmas and Damian; State Tretyakov Gallery; All-Russian Exhibition Center; Moscow Zoo; Moscow State University; Gorky Park; Monument to Peter the Great; Tsar Bell; and Krutitsy. ---------See:

Sports: Soccer is an extremely popular spectator sport among the young. Winter sports have a large following. Most Russians own cross-country skis and ice skates and there are many large parks with marked trails for skiers and frozen ponds and canals for skaters. Often parks will have small local businesses offering ski and skate rental.

Demographics: Although the population of the Russian Federation declines by about 700,000 (143.8 million * 0.5% decline) every year due to low birth rates and early deaths, Moscow appears to be immune to these problems in recent years. Moscow has a very high population growth rate, largely due to migration. According to a July 22, 2004 article in Forbes, Moscow became the city with the most billionaires. It had 33 billionaires, passing New York City by two. Most other areas in are much more stagnation or even declined, the result of sharp polarization of the country in recent years. Right now, Moscow is the largest city in Europe.

Moscow Weather: Moscow's climate really consists of two seasons: winter and summer. Russian winter, if you're prepared, can be adventurous: furs and vodka keep people warm, and snow-covered landscapes are picturesque. A solid snow pack covers the ground from Nov.

Terrorism: Terrorism is a recent threat in Moscow. The prolonged war with Chechen separatists has led them to utilisation of terrorism as a means to oppose the federal government.

Int'l Dialing Codes for Moscow: The country code is: 7 and The city code is: 9.

Moscow Metro:

See: Moscow Metro Large Maps - Go to the Bottom of that page...

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